proposer_slashings and attester_slashings - validators that have performed a hostile action against the network (for example, proposing or attesting to an invalid block). The network confiscates a portion of their staked ETH and ejects them from the validator set.
baseFeePerGas - EIP-1559 created a minimum cost (base fee) for each unit of gas. When a block is created, the entire base fee is burned. The value changes based on how full the previous block was (max change of 12.5% per block).
difficulty - a value that approximates the time a miner should calculate a hash function before finding a block. Network hash rate / difficulty = average block time
No longer applicable under Proof of Stake
extraData - an (optional) 32-byte field in which block proposers can put anything they want. Often used by mining pools to log their blocks.
Similar to the graffiti in the consensus layer
gasLimit - total gas available to the block
gasUsed - gas used by the block
hash - hash of the block
logsBloom - a Bloom filter is a probabilistic structure that allows a user to filter through each element in the block.
minimizes the number of queries a client needs to make.
Miner - the Ethereum address of the miner who successfully created this block
mixHash - intermediate value calculated from nonce, used for validation
nonce - extra data miners add to a block before hashing.
A block is created when this hash matches a specific value; mining is the process of attempting to find this value by altering the nonce.
number - Ethereum block number
Similar to slot in the consensus layer
parentHash - the root hash of a Merkle tree of the previous block
receiptsRoot - the root hash of a Merkle tree which stores the receipts created by the transactions in a block.
A receipt includes: block number, block hash, associated contracts, gas used, the stateRoot at the time (before) transaction, etc.
size - size of the block in bytes
stateRoot - the root hash of a Merkle tree which stores the entire state of the EVM (account balances, contract storage, contract code, etc)
timestamp - the date/time when the block was created, as reported by the block proposer
totalDifficulty - the cumulative value of the difficult required to build the chain up until this block
Uncle blocks are no longer relevant; they are not possible under Proof of Stake.
They are created when 2 blocks are mined and sent to the network simultaneously. The block that gets validated by more nodes gets added to the blockchain. The other block becomes an uncle block. Uncle blocks are recorded, but do not affect the EVM state.
sha3Uncles - the root hash of a Merkle tree which stores all uncles for a given parent
uncles - a list of the blocks uncled by this block